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Dopamine in Reward: However, the pioneering studies of Wolfram Schultz showed that these DA neuron responses are not triggered by reward consumption per se. Both types of dopamine neurons are augmented by an alerting signal involved in rapid detection of potentially important sensory cues. In the first part of this review we will introduce the conventional theory of phasic DA reward signals and will review recent advances in understanding their nature and their control over neural processing and behavior. The same principle holds for DA responses to sensory cues that provide new information about future rewards. DA neurons are excited when a cue indicates an increase in future reward value Figure 1C , red , inhibited when a cue indicates a decrease in future reward value Figure 1C , blue , and generally have little response to cues that convey no new reward information Figure 1E , black. Drugs that interfere with DA transmission interfere with reinforcement learning, while manipulations which enhance DA transmission, such as brain stimulation and addictive drugs, often acts as reinforcers Wise, These neurons support brain systems for orienting, cognitive processing, and motivational drive. Together, we hypothesize that these value, salience, and alerting signals cooperate to coordinate downstream brain structures and control motivated behavior. One type of DA neurons encode motivational value, excited by rewarding events and inhibited by aversive events.

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Dopamine in Reward: However, the pioneering studies of Wolfram Schultz showed that these DA neuron responses are not triggered by reward consumption per se. Both types of dopamine neurons are augmented by an alerting signal involved in rapid detection of potentially important sensory cues. In the first part of this review we will introduce the conventional theory of phasic DA reward signals and will review recent advances in understanding their nature and their control over neural processing and behavior. The same principle holds for DA responses to sensory cues that provide new information about future rewards. DA neurons are excited when a cue indicates an increase in future reward value Figure 1C , red , inhibited when a cue indicates a decrease in future reward value Figure 1C , blue , and generally have little response to cues that convey no new reward information Figure 1E , black. Drugs that interfere with DA transmission interfere with reinforcement learning, while manipulations which enhance DA transmission, such as brain stimulation and addictive drugs, often acts as reinforcers Wise, These neurons support brain systems for orienting, cognitive processing, and motivational drive. Together, we hypothesize that these value, salience, and alerting signals cooperate to coordinate downstream brain structures and control motivated behavior. One type of DA neurons encode motivational value, excited by rewarding events and inhibited by aversive events.

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  1. The same principle holds for DA responses to sensory cues that provide new information about future rewards. These neurons support brain systems for orienting, cognitive processing, and motivational drive.

  2. Drugs that interfere with DA transmission interfere with reinforcement learning, while manipulations which enhance DA transmission, such as brain stimulation and addictive drugs, often acts as reinforcers Wise,

  3. In the first part of this review we will introduce the conventional theory of phasic DA reward signals and will review recent advances in understanding their nature and their control over neural processing and behavior. These neurons support brain systems for seeking goals, evaluating outcomes, and value learning.

  4. Together, we hypothesize that these value, salience, and alerting signals cooperate to coordinate downstream brain structures and control motivated behavior. In contrast to the accepted role of DA in reward processing, there has been considerable debate over the role of phasic DA activity in processing non-rewarding events.

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